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The Journal of Supercritical Fluids — Elsevier. Enjoy affordable access to over 18 million articles from more than 15, peer-reviewed journals. Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15, scientific journals. See the journals in your area. Continue with Facebook. Sign up with Google. Bookmark this article. You can see your Bookmarks on your DeepDyve Library. Sign Up Log In. Copy and paste the desired citation format or use the link below to download a file formatted for EndNote.

All DeepDyve websites use cookies to improve your online experience. They were placed on your computer when you launched this website. You can change your cookie settings through your browser. Open Advanced Search. DeepDyve requires Javascript to function. Please enable Javascript on your browser to continue. Valorization of cacao pod husk through supercritical fluid extraction of phenolic compounds Valorization of cacao pod husk through supercritical fluid extraction of phenolic compounds Valadez-Carmona, Lourdes; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia; Ceballos-Reyes, Guillermo; Mendiola, Jose A.

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Cocoa Good; Chocolate Bad

System error. Please try again! How was the reading experience on this article? The text was blurry Page doesn't load Other:. Details Include any more information that will help us locate the issue and fix it faster for you. Thank you for submitting a report! Submitting a report will send us an email through our customer support system. Submit report Close. Recommended Articles Loading References Cacao pod husks Theobroma cacao L. Improving nutritional quality of cocoa pod Theobroma cacao through chemical and biological treatments for ruminant feeding: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

In replication of previous results, participants in the no-go condition also showed less desire to eat and reduced food intake relative to the go condition. Together these findings support the idea that food-specific inhibition training prompts the development of automatic inhibition associations, which subsequently facilitate inhibitory control over unwanted food-related urges. Full Text Available Evaluative conditioning EC procedures can be used to form and change attitudes toward a wide variety of objects. Explicit and implicit attitudes toward chocolate images were collected.

During an ostensible taste test, chocolate evaluation and consumption were assessed. Results revealed that compared to participants in the control condition, participants in the experimental condition showed more negative explicit and implicit attitudes toward chocolate images and evaluated chocolate more negatively during the taste test. However, chocolate consumption did not differ between experimental and control conditions. These findings suggest that pairing chocolate with negative stimuli can influence attitudes toward chocolate , though behavioral effects are absent.

Intervention applications of EC provide avenues for future research and practices. All along the history, many kinds of magic and aphrodisiac properties were attributed to the chocolate. Because of the presence of certain active substances, cacao and chocolate are supposed to have some potentially beneficial effects on human health, particularly on cardiovascular system. Containing flavoniods, cacao and its products have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, anti-thrombotic, antihypertensive and neuroprotective effects, as well as influence on insulin sensitivity, vascular endothelial function, and activation of nitric oxide.

Other molecules, like methyxantin, biogenic amines and cannabinoid-like fatty acids, may have a psychoactive action. Synergic effect of all these substances could have a positive direct and indirect influence on sexual health and function. Nevertheless, randomized studies are needed to confirm these hypotheses and to elaborate recommendations about cacao consumption. Psychoactive effects of tasting chocolate and desire for more chocolate. The purpose of this study was to characterize the psychoactive effects of tasting chocolate and to evaluate the contribution of the main chocolate components to the desire to consume more of it.

Participants were randomly assigned to taste Participants were more likely to want more of the tasted chocolate if they displayed a greater change in the MBG scale, and if their chocolate sample had high sugar and cocoa content, as assessed by multiple logistic regression. Our results suggest that multiple characteristics of chocolate , including sugar, cocoa and the drug-like effects experienced, play a role in the desire to consume chocolate.

The in vitro binding properties of SCH have been extensively characterized, however, little research has been conducted on its in vivo binding profile. Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with 0. The striatum and cerebellum were removed, weighed and the radioactivity was counted. The pharmacological profile of the in vivo binding of 7ISCH was determined by the ability of dopaminergic antagonists to inhibit specific binding in the rat striatum 1 h after treatment. Haloperidol, a D-2 antagonist, did not inhibit the specific binding of 7ISCH to the striatum at doses up to nmoles.

Modification of radiation-induced sex-linked recessive lethal mutation frequency by tocopherol. Although tocopherol treatment of males had no impact on the yield of mutations, a drastic reduction in mutation frequency was observed when irradiated males were mated to females raised and subsequently maintained on tocopherol-enriched diet. Learning Biochemistry by Chocolate. Methodology: 1. Conclusion: A contextured approach is quite positive for learning biochemistry to chemists. Buttermilk chocolate.

Buttermilk chocolate is the food that conforms to the standard of identity, and is subject to the requirements for label declaration of ingredients for milk chocolate in Hot chocolate effect. The ''hot chocolate effect'' was investigated quantitatively, using water. If a tall glass cylinder is filled nearly completely with water and tapped on the bottom with a softened mallet one can detect the lowest longitudinal mode of the water column, for which the height of the water column is one-quarter wavelength. If the cylinder is rapidly filled with hot tap water containing dissolved air the pitch of that mode may descend by nearly three octaves during the first few seconds as the air comes out of solution and forms bubbles.

Then the pitch gradually rises as the bubbles float to the top. A simple theoretical expression for the pitch ratio is derived and compared with experiment. The hot chocolate effect. Cardiovascular Benefits of Dark Chocolate? Our understanding of cacao has evolved with modern science. It is now felt based on extensive research the main health benefits of cacao stem from epicatechin, a flavanol found in cacao. The process of manufacturing dark chocolate retains epicatechin, whereas milk chocolate does not contain significant amounts of epicatechin.

Thus, most of the current research studies are focused on dark chocolate. Both epidemiological and clinical studies suggest a beneficial effect of dark chocolate on blood pressure, lipids, and inflammation. Ultimately, further studies of this promising compound are needed to elucidate its potential for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases as well as other diseases that have underlying mechanisms of mitochondrial dysfunction and nitric oxide deficiency.

Effects of thyroid hormones on cartilage sulphation in sex-linked dwarf chickens. Hoshino, S. The present investigation was undertaken to see if exogenous thyroid hormone could stimulate cartilage sulphation in vivo and in vitro in sex-linked dwarf chickens.

These data demonstrate that thyroid hormones, like insulin-like growth factor I, might be responsible for the reduced growth rate of dwarf chickens. Genomic regions associated with the sex-linked inhibitor of dermal melanin in Silkie chicken. Full Text Available A unique characteristic of the Silkie chicken is its fibromelanosis phenotype. The dermal layer of its skin, its connective tissue and shank dermis are hyperpigmented.

This dermal hyperpigmentation phenotype is controlled by the sex-linked inhibitor of dermal melanin gene ID and the dominant fibromelanosis allele. This study attempted to confirm the genomic region associated with ID. The expression of these genes was characterized in the embryo and 4 days after hatching and it was concluded that MTAP, encoding methylthioadenosinephosphorylase, would be the most likely candidate gene.

Finally, target DNA capture and sequence analysis was performed, but no specific SNP s was found in the targeted region of the Silkie genome. Further work is necessary to identify the causal ID mutation located on chromosome Z. Hysteresis in the phase transition of chocolate.

We designed an experiment to reproduce the hysteresis phenomenon of chocolate appearing in the heating and cooling process, and then established a model to relate the solidification degree to the order parameter. Based on the Landau-Devonshire theory, our model gave a description of the hysteresis phenomenon in chocolate , which lays the foundations for the study of the phase transition behavior of chocolate.

Attention bias for chocolate increases chocolate consumption--an attention bias modification study. The current study examined experimentally whether a manipulated attention bias for food cues increases craving, chocolate intake and motivation to search for hidden chocolates.

To test the effect of attention for food on subsequent chocolate intake, attention for chocolate was experimentally modified by instructing participants to look at chocolate stimuli "attend chocolate " group or at non-food stimuli "attend shoes" group during a novel attention bias modification task antisaccade task. Chocolate consumption, changes in craving and search time for hidden chocolates were assessed. Eye-movement recordings were used to monitor the accuracy during the experimental attention modification task as possible moderator of effects.

Regression analyses were conducted to test the effect of attention modification and modification accuracy on chocolate intake, craving and motivation to search for hidden chocolates. In contrast, for participants with lower accuracy -1 SD , the results were exactly reversed. No effects of the experimental attention modification on craving or search time for hidden chocolates were found. We used chocolate as food stimuli so it remains unclear how our findings generalize to other types of food. These findings demonstrate further evidence for a link between attention for food and food intake, and provide an indication about the direction of this relationship.

Fully automated pipeline for detection of sex linked genes using RNA-Seq data. Sex chromosomes present a genomic region which to some extent, differs between the genders of a single species. Reliable high-throughput methods for detection of sex chromosomes specific markers are needed, especially in species where genome information is limited. Next generation sequencing NGS opens the door for identification of unique sequences or searching for nucleotide polymorphisms between datasets. A combination of classical genetic segregation analysis along with RNA-Seq data can present an ideal tool to map and identify sex chromosome-specific expressed markers.

To address this challenge, we established genetic cross of dioecious plant Rumex acetosa and generated RNA-Seq data from both parental generation and male and female offspring. We present a pipeline for detection of sex linked genes based on nucleotide polymorphism analysis. In our approach, tracking of nucleotide polymorphisms is carried out using a cross of preferably distant populations. For this reason, only 4 datasets are needed - reads from high-throughput sequencing platforms for parent generation mother and father and F1 generation male and female progeny.

Our pipeline uses custom scripts together with external assembly, mapping and variant calling software. Given the resource-intensive nature of the computation, servers with high capacity are a requirement. Therefore, in order to keep this pipeline easily accessible and reproducible, we implemented it in Galaxy - an open, web-based platform for data-intensive biomedical research.

Our tools are present in the Galaxy Tool Shed, from which they can be installed to any local Galaxy instance. As an output of the pipeline, user gets a FASTA file with candidate transcriptionally active sex-linked genes, sorted by their relevance. At the same time, a BAM file with identified genes and alignment of reads is also provided. Thus, polymorphisms following segregation pattern can be easily visualized, which significantly enhances primer design. Se ha demostrad Analysis of consumer behavior at chocolate purchase. Full Text Available At food purchase consumer is affected by several factors.

In this work analysis of consumer behavior at chocolate purchase was performed involving respondents. Statistical testing of results was performed by Chi - Square statistic, correlations have been tested with use of the Cramer's coefficient. In the consumption of chocolate moderate correlation among various categories of economic activity of respondents was confirmed.

We found that consumers prefer milk chocolate followed by dark and white at the end. In terms of gender the most commonly was chocolate consumed by women, once to three times a week. The same frequency of chocolate consumption dominates at the categories of students and employee. Tebufenozide resistance is associated with sex-linked inheritance in Plutella xylostella. Tebufenozide, a novel nonsteroidal ecdysone agonist, exhibits good efficacy and has played an increasingly important role in the control of Lepidopteran pests in China.

The dominance calculated for these 2 cross progeny was Further analysis showed that the susceptible male and female larvae were similar in their sensitivity to tebufenozide, but the resistant female larvae showed significantly higher resistance than the resistant male larvae. The heredity of tebufenozide resistance in DBM might be linked with the W sex chromosome, which suggested that DBM has the ability to develop high levels of resistance to tebufenozide. This is the first report of sex-linked inheritance of tebufenozide resistance in P.

Diminished hepatic growth hormone receptor binding in sex-linked dwarf broiler and leghorn chickens. Hepatic growth hormone GH receptor binding was compared in normal and sex-linked dwarfs SLD from both Hubbard and Cornell strain chickens. At 6, 8, and 20 weeks of age, hepatic GH receptor binding in the Hubbard SLD chickens was significantly lower than that of normal fast-growing birds.

At 20 weeks of age, only 2 of 22 SLD chickens in the Hubbard broiler strain showed positive binding at a high enough level to allow for Scatchard analysis. The affinity constants and binding capacities of these two SLD chickens were numerically but not significantly lower than those of the normal fast-growing birds. We further examined hepatic GH receptor binding in two closely related White Leghorn strains of chickens that have been maintained as closed breeding populations for many years. Based on these data, we suggest that the lack, or greatly reduced number, of GH receptors may be a major contributing factor to the dwarfism observed in these strains.

Influence of gender constancy and social power on sex-linked modeling. Competing predictions derived from cognitive-developmental theory and social learning theory concerning sex-linked modeling were tested. In cognitive-developmental theory, gender constancy is considered a necessary prerequisite for the emulation of same-sex models, whereas according to social learning theory, sex-role development is promoted through a vast system of social influences with modeling serving as a major conveyor of sex role information.

In accord with social learning theory, even children at a lower level of gender conception emulated same-sex models in preference to opposite-sex ones. Level of gender constancy was associated with higher emulation of both male and female models rather than operating as a selective determinant of modeling. This finding corroborates modeling as a basic mechanism in the sex-typing process. In a second experiment we explored the limits of same-sex modeling by pitting social power against the force of collective modeling of different patterns of behavior by male and female models.

Social power over activities and rewarding resources produced cross-sex modeling in boys, but not in girls. This unexpected pattern of cross-sex modeling is explained by the differential sex-typing pressures that exist for boys and girls and socialization experiences that heighten the attractiveness of social power for boys.

Comparative study of different sexis mutability: recessive sex-linked and dominant lethals in Drosophila melanogaster. The frequency of recessive sex-linked lethal mutations RSLLM and those realizing in embryogenesis of dominant lethals, which form in oo- and spermatogenesis of Drosophila and fly productivity under the effect of X-rays and N-nitroso-N methylourea NMU , is studied. In the case of effect of both mutagens RSLLM form in spermatocytes with higher frequency as compared with oocytes. Dominant lethal mutations DLM during irradiation are also often registered in spermatocytes. NMU induces DLM in mitotic male cells with a very high frequency but is not effective during the effect on oocytes.

When both mutagens affect males and X-rays affect females, the decrease of productivity is mainly conditioned by DLM. As NMU does not induce DLM in females realizing in embryogenesis but reduces productivity, a later lethal realization connected with their different nature is supposed. Differences in mole and female mutability found in the course of X-ray and NMU effect are discussed in connection with peculiarities of their mitotic cells and the nature of effect of mutagens applied [ru. Since ancient times, numerous health beneficial effects have been attributed to chocolate , closing up its consumption to a therapeutic use.

The present study reviews some relevant studies about chocolate and its bioactive compounds on some cardiovascular risk factors and stresses the need of future studies. Data currently available indicate that daily consumption of cocoa-rich chocolate rich in polyphenols may at least partially lower cardiovascular disease risk. Further studies are required in order to establish the bioavailability and mechanisms of action of bioactive compounds in chocolate.

The study of the interaction of chocolate and its components with candidate genes will also supply necessary information regarding the individuals best suited to benefit from a potential cardiovascular disease treatment with chocolate. Dark chocolate : consumption for pleasure or therapy? Traditional chocolate is derived from the cocoa bean, which is one of the most concentrated sources of flavanols, a subgroup of the natural antioxidant plant compounds called flavonoids. Accumulating evidence from the past 10 years demonstrates that moderate consumption of chocolate , especially dark chocolate , may exert protective effects against the development of cardiovascular disease.

Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain this positive influence, including metabolic, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-thrombotic effects, as well as effects on insulin sensitivity and vascular endothelial function. Should these results be confirmed in randomised, controlled, cross-over, multi-dose trials, then the pleasure associated with chocolate consumption might also be justified from health and psychological perspectives. However, since dark chocolate has substantially higher levels of flavonoids than milk chocolate , and milk proteins may inhibit absorption of flavonoids, it might be preferable to consume dark chocolate than the white milk variety.

Chocolate and medicine: dangerous liaisons? According to ancient Mayan texts, cocoa is of divine origin and is considered a gift from the gods. In the Classic period of Mayan civilization a. The Aztecs believed that cocoa pods symbolized life and fertility, and that eating the fruit of the cocoa tree allowed them to acquire wisdom and power. Cocoa was said to have nourishing, fortifying, and aphrodisiac qualities. Pre-Columbian societies were known to use chocolate as medicine, too.

The appreciation and popularity of chocolate fluctuated over the centuries since its introduction to Europe from the New World. Now, recent evidence has begun to erase the poor reputation that chocolate had acquired in the past few decades and is restoring its former status. Chocolate is no longer deemed a guilty pleasure, and it may have positive health benefits when eaten in moderation as part of a balanced diet. The true Price of Chocolate? Chocolate prices generally do not incorporate many of the environmental and social externalities, costs which are incurred as the main ingredients such as cocoa and sugar move from farms, to factories to consumers.

Nor do prices reflect the benefits of non-conventional production and alternative. Anticipated stigma and blameless guilt: Mothers' evaluation of life with the sex-linked disorder, hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia XHED. Practical experience of a genetic disorder may influence how parents approach reproduction, if they know their child may be affected by an inherited condition. One important aspect of this practical experience is the stigmatisation which family members may experience or witness. We outline the concept of stigma and how it affects those in families with a condition that impacts upon physical appearance.

We then consider the accounts given by females in families affected by the rare sex-linked Understanding the structure of chocolate. Models for the different phases may be based on the crystal structure determinations of triacylglycerols. A new, patented, way of chocolate making is in development in which the traditional tempering process is replaced by another pre-crystallization process.

The process is based on the use of seed crystals in the liquid phase and driven by a feedback system. Resisting chocolate temptation using a brief mindfulness strategy. Objectives: We examined the effects of two mindfulness-based strategies on chocolate consumption amongst individuals who were trying to reduce the amount of chocolate they consumed. During this period, they carried a bag of chocolates with them and recorded any chocolate or chocolate -r Chocolate is a natural product as ubiquitous as television.

Of course, it is eaten, but it is also found in air fresheners, marking pens, flavoring in a multitude of products including soda pop, and as an aroma in " chocolate -dyed" T-shirts. However, most of us are completely unaware of the complex chemical reactions that take place to produce chocolate and the necessary technology that has evolved to produce chocolate and all its byproducts.

Processing results in a mixture of many components, an interesting contrast to most of the simple, one-step reactions introduced at the high school level. This article is a survey of chocolate from tree to table. After a brief introduction to the history of chocolate and how and where it is grown, the manufacturing process is examined, and the chemistry is explored. A bit of the jargon used in the industry is mentioned. Cocoa butter is a significant ingredient in chocolate , and an investigation of it introduces triglycerides, fatty acids, polymorphic behavior, and molecular packing of the fats in chocolate and how they affect the tempering process.

There is a brief discussion of chocolate 's non-Newtonian behavior and the resulting challenges presented in the manufacturing process. See Featured Molecules Featured on the Cover. The impact of chocolate on cardiovascular health. Cardiovascular disease is the leading determinant of mortality and morbidity in women. Functional foods are attracting interest as potential regulators of the susceptibility to disease.

Supported by epidemiological evidence, chocolate has emerged as a possible modulator of cardiovascular risk. Chocolate , or cocoa as the natural source, contains flavanols, a subclass of flavonoids. The latter years have witnessed an increasing number of experimental and clinical studies that suggest a protective effect of chocolate against atherogenesis. Oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial function define three biological mechanisms that have shown sensitivity to chocolate. Moreover, the consumption of chocolate has been involved in the protective modulation of blood pressure, the lipid profile, the activation of platelets, and the sensitivity to insulin.

Dark chocolate seems more protective than milk or white chocolate. Despite this array of benefits, there is a lack of well designed clinical studies demonstrating cardiovascular benefit of chocolate. The high caloric content of chocolate , particularly of some less pure forms, imposes caution before recommending uncontrolled consumption.

The mysterious light of dark chocolate. A healthy diet plays a key role in the prevention and management of cardiovascular diseases. Dark chocolate in particular has been shown to improve endothelial functions and lipid profile and to have cardiovascular protective effects via an inhibitory action on platelet functions. Recently, several studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of chocolate , primarily on hypertension and other conditions such as coronary artery disease and hyperlipidemia.

Cocoa, chocolate , and cardiovascular disease. A significant body of evidence demonstrates that diets rich in fruits and vegetables promote health and attenuate, or delay, the onset of various diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, certain cancers, and several other age-related degenerative disorders. The concept that moderate chocolate consumption could be part of a healthy diet has gained acceptance in past years based on the health benefits ascribed to selected cocoa components.

Specifically, cocoa as a plant and chocolate as food contain a series of chemicals that can interact with cell and tissue components, providing protection against the development and amelioration of pathological conditions. The most relevant effects of cocoa and chocolate have been related to cardiovascular disease. The mechanisms behind these effects are still under investigation. However, the maintenance or restoration of vascular NO production and bioavailability and the antioxidant effects are the mechanisms most consistently supported by experimental data.

This review will summarize the most recent research on the cardiovascular effects of cocoa flavanols and related compounds. Effects of intentionally enhanced chocolate on mood. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled experiment investigated whether chocolate exposed to "good intentions" would enhance mood more than unexposed chocolate. Individuals were assigned to one of four groups and asked to record their mood each day for a week by using the Profile of Mood States. For days three, four and five, each person consumed a half ounce of dark chocolate twice a day at prescribed times.

Three groups blindly received chocolate that had been intentionally treated by three different techniques. The intention in each case was that people who ate the chocolate would experience an enhanced sense of energy, vigor, and well-being. The fourth group blindly received untreated chocolate as a placebo control. The hypothesis was that mood reported during the three days of eating chocolate would improve more in the intentional groups than in the control group. Stratified random sampling was used to distribute 62 participants among the four groups, matched for age, gender, and amount of chocolate consumed on average per week.

Most participants lived in the same geographic region to reduce mood variations due to changes in weather, and the experiment was conducted during one week to reduce effects of current events on mood fluctuations. Analysis of a planned subset of individuals who habitually consumed less than the grand mean of 3.

All three intentional techniques contributed to the observed results. The mood-elevating properties of chocolate can be enhanced with intention. The draw of the Union Chocolate chip cookies are used to illustrate the importance and effectiveness of control charts in Statistical Process Control. By counting the number of chocolate chips, creating the spreadsheet, calculating the control limits and graphing the control charts, the student becomes actively engaged in the learning process.

In addition, examining…. Chocolate as a source of tea flavonoids. The antioxidant catechin content of chocolate is four times that of tea. Epidemiological assessments of health effects of tea should include other foods that are sources of. The study of chocolate , a natural product, can be beneficial for the chemistry students as they ask frequently about the relevancy of their chemistry classes. The history of chocolate , its chemical and physical changes during processing, its composition, different crystalline forms, tempering and its viscosity are discussed.

Wireless 3D Chocolate Printer. The researchers used the Prototyping model as procedural method for the successful development and implementation of the hardware and software. This method has five phases which are the following: quick plan, quick design, prototype construction, delivery and feedback and communication. This study was evaluated by the BSHRM Students and the assessment of the respondents regarding the software and hardware application are all excellent in terms of Accuracy, Effecitveness, Efficiency, Maintainability, Reliability and User-friendliness.

Also, the overall level of acceptability of the design project as evaluated by the respondents is excellent. With regard to the observation about the best raw material to use in 3D printing, the chocolate is good to use as the printed material is slightly distorted,durable and very easy to prepare; the icing is also good to use as the printed material is not distorted and is very durable but consumes time to prepare; the flour is not good as the printed material is distorted, not durable but it is easy to prepare.

The computation of the economic viability level of 3d printer with reference to ROI is The recommendation of the researchers in the design project are as follows: adding a cooling system so that the raw material will be more durable, development of a more simplified version and improving the extrusion process wherein the user do not need to stop the printing process just to replace the empty syringe with a new one.

High-performance composite chocolate. The performance of any engineering component depends on and is limited by the properties of the material from which it is fabricated. It is crucial for engineering students to understand these material properties, interpret them and select the right material for the right application. In this paper we present a new method to engage students with the material selection process.

In a competition-based practical, first-year undergraduate students design, cost and cast composite chocolate samples to maximize a particular performance criterion. The same activity could be adapted for any level of education to introduce the subject of materials properties and their effects on the material chosen for specific applications. Evidence for mito-nuclear and sex-linked reproductive barriers between the hybrid Italian sparrow and its parent species.

Full Text Available Studies of reproductive isolation between homoploid hybrid species and their parent species have rarely been carried out. Here we investigate reproductive barriers between a recently recognized hybrid bird species, the Italian sparrow Passer italiae and its parent species, the house sparrow P.

Reproductive barriers can be difficult to study in hybrid species due to lack of geographical contact between taxa. However, the Italian sparrow lives parapatrically with the house sparrow and both sympatrically and parapatrically with the Spanish sparrow. Through whole-transcriptome sequencing of six individuals of each of the two parent species we identified a set of putatively parent species-diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism SNP markers. We show that a disproportionately large number of sex-linked genes, as well as the mitochondria and nuclear genes with mitochondrial function, exhibit sharp clines at the boundaries between the hybrid and the parent species, suggesting a role for mito-nuclear and sex-linked incompatibilities in forming reproductive barriers.

We suggest that genomic conflict via interactions between mitochondria and sex-linked genes with mitochondrial function "mother's curse" at one boundary and centromeric drive at the other may best explain our findings. Hybrid speciation in the Italian sparrow may therefore be influenced by mechanisms similar to those involved in non-hybrid speciation, but with the formation of two geographically separated species boundaries instead of one. Spanish sparrow alleles at some loci have spread north to form reproductive barriers with house sparrows, while house sparrow alleles at different loci, including some on the same chromosome.

Skim milk chocolate is the food that conforms to the standard of identity, and is subject to the requirements for label declaration of ingredients for milk chocolate in Mixed dairy product chocolates are the foods Text of the decree with introduction and comprehensive explanations. Produzir chocolates requer um entendimento do consumidor.

Chocolate is a product widely consumed throughout the world that has seen generally increasing production trends over the last years. Making chocolate requires an understanding of how the consumer perceives it. The preferred type of chocolate varies from country to country. The different tastes and uses for chocolate reflect the histories of the industry in different places.

The taste of chocolate is partially determined by the chemistry of the product. Taste depends on the release of flavor compounds in the mouth and nose, while perceived texture is a function of the way in which the material melts and breaks up in the mouth. Most chocolates that are available on the market throughout the world are made from very similar ingredients, yet have very different flavors. Some manufacturers have specific house flavors, and very often this.

Case presentation We report the case of a year-old Japanese man who presented for examination after an abnormal shadow was detected by chest radiography. He received a diagnosis of pulmonary adenocarcinoma, stage IV. Purpura on the legs, abdominal pain, diarrhea, hematuria and proteinuria developed at this time.

Our patient was treated with corticosteroid therapy, which cleared the purpura and cytotoxic chemotherapy for the non-small cell lung cancer. However, he died from heart failure due to cardiac tamponade. Electrorheology leads to healthier and tastier chocolate. Chocolate is one of the most popular food types and flavors in the world.

Unfortunately, at present, chocolate products contain too much fat, leading to obesity. Although this issue was called into attention decades ago, no actual solution was found. To bypass this critical outstanding problem, two manufacturers introduced some low-calorie fats to substitute for cocoa butter. Somehow, their products are not allowed in most countries. Here we show that this issue is deeply related to the basic science of soft matter, especially to the viscosity of liquid suspension and maximally random jammed MRJ density. When the concentration of cocoa solid is high, close to the MRJ density, removing a small amount of fat will jam the chocolate flow.

Applying unconventional electrorheology to liquid chocolate with applied field in the flow direction, we aggregate the cocoa particles into prolate spheroids in micrometers. With its high boiling point, low vapor pressure and high stability, it is an effective solvent in numerous industry applications and can be used as a co-solvent with water, alcohols and other organic substances. M-Pyrol solvent is extremely resistant to hydrolysis from pH , even at elevated temperatures.

Beyond these limits, hydrolysis to 4- methylamino butanoic acid occurs at a rate dependent on pH and temperature. A large body of chemistry has been developed on the reactions of strong nucleophiles with M-Pyrol solvent. M-Pyrol solvent is an excellent polymer solvent, paint and photoresist stripper, paint coalescent, industrial cleaner, and extraction solvent.

Its N-Methyl 2 pyrrolidone structure is extremely resistant to hydrolysis from pH , even at elevated temperatures. With a gentle, natural renewal from the inside, the skin surface is re-texturized. By enhancing essential water molecules, hydrasources are restored resulting in skin that is visibly more quenched. It helps skin adapt more readily to solar exposure and limit exposure-related damage, preserving its healthy appearance and beauty.

Skin may appear smoother, refreshed and firmer. It comprises a range of hydroxyethylcellulose thickeners that delivers unprecedented process flexibility and quality control to paint manufacturers. The patented technology triggers rapid and complete dispersion in any water-based medium, even under low shear conditions.

This allows manufacturers to add HEC in dry form at any point of the manufacturing process, eliminating extra process steps such as the preparation of pre-slurries or dissolutions of HEC, saving operational costs. The end result is a faster, more efficient, less costly production process. In addition, Natrosol Performax thickeners enhance paint quality and preserve critical performance characteristics, such as efficient thickening, stability, color compatibility and sag resistance.

Ashland's Natrosol thickeners have been the leading HEC thickeners for waterborne architectural coatings for more than 50 years. Hydroxyethylcellulose is offered in different viscosity levels molecular weights , particle size distribution and are available as regular HEC or more enzyme resistant HEC. You also have the choice to use retarded solubly types, which simplify preparation of solutions and incorporation into the final products. This best-in-class, bio-resistant HEC will maintain stability even in the presence of cellulose enzyme produced by microbial activity.

Natrosol B HEC grades for paints and coatings applications are typically glyoxylated R-treated for ease of incorporation. In latex architectural paints, Natrosol B HEC is know for superior color performance, stability, shear-thinning, application properties and sag resistance. Virtually all viscosity grades of Natrosol commonly used in paint and coatings, including Regular, B-types and Natrosol Plus, are also available in a fluidized FPS version.

HEC polymer is pre-dispersed in a stabilized aqueous media, creating an easy-to-handle, pourable, pumpable liquid cellulosic thickener. Natrosol FPS can be easily added to the grind, but is most advantageous when added directly to the let-down stage of paint making, where it readily disperses and incorporates quickly without lumping. FPS is also commonly used as a post-thickener to adjust the final viscosity of finished batches.

The first is the standard reaction of alkali-cellulose with ethylene oxide to produce HEC. The second step is a cetyl substitution, which provides the hydrophobic end groups. The resultant nonionic polymer is purified and dried. HMHEC polymers are unique in that they function as associative thickeners, meaning they not only thicken aqueous systems via chain entanglement and conventional hydrogen bonding, but also via hydrophobe interactions.

In solution, hydrophobe groups seek out other hydrophobes, including oils and pigments, forming weak interactions and effectively creating a three-dimensional polymer network. The hydrophobic modification imparts many unique properties to HMHEC polymers including pseudoplastic shear thinning behavior, high salt tolerance and long-term stability over a very wide pH range 3. In addition to the hydrogen-bonding and chain entanglement, typical of standard HEC, Natrosol Plus is hydrophobically modified and readily forms weak, three-dimensional networks via hydrophobe association.

This associative thickening mechanism provides the best spatter resistance in the industry but does not suffer from the formulation sensitivity typical of synthetic associative thickeners SATs. Natrosol Plus modified HEC is a white, free-flowing powder that is readily incorporated into paints. It is also available as a pumpable liquid as Natrosol Plus fluidized polymer suspension.

It is made by reacting ethylene oxide with alkali-cellulose under rigidly controlled conditions. Purified HEC for personal care and cosmetic applications is typically sold at Solutions of Natrosol HEC are pseudoplastic or shear-thinning. As a result, personal care products formulated with Natrosol HEC dispense rich and thick from the container, but spread easily on hair and skin. Natrosol HEC is easily dissolved in cold or hot water to give crystal-clear solutions of varying viscosities.

Furthermore, low to medium molecular weight types are fully soluble in glycerol and have good solubility in hydro-alcoholic systems containing up to 60 percent ethanol. Natrosol HEC is generally insoluble in organic solvents. Natrosol HEC is used as a binder, bond strengthener, cement extender, coating and optical brightener aid, coating polymer, filtration control additive, green strength enhancer, protective colloid, rebound or slumping reducer, rheology controller and modifier, lubricity and workability enhancer, suspension and stabilization agent, shape retention enhancer and thickener.

Natrosol HEC has applications in multiple markets including adhesives and sealants, advanced ceramics, building and construction, ceramics, pottery and porcelain, commercial and institutional, oil and gas technologies, metal castings and foundry, paint and coatings, personal care, pharmaceutical and pulp and paper. Nexton specialty water-soluble polymers are a family of nonionic additives. Their unique chemistries provide distinctive textures in cement, gypsum- and latex-based products improving workability, cohesiveness and appearance of building material.

Nexton products have been developed specifically for masonry systems and tape joint compounds and also find application in gypsum plasters and renders. Omnirez polymer forms tough, clear, glossy films and delivers long-term hold to hair in high humidity conditions. The polymer allows for good sprayability and has good propellant compatibility.

The performance of Omnirez polymer can be optimized by selecting the appropriate additives, neutralizers, packaging and valving. Optimage SF microgel provides both rapid and long-lasting improvement in the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles. It achieves this due to its unique gel-matrix composition, which has an affinity to skin and adapts to wrinkle topology. This microgel is a patent-pending technology that is soft, silicone-free, pre-dispersed, and robust in formulation.

This technology can be used in both anti-aging and "selfie-ready" skin care formulas. Applications leave-on skin care. Optiphen HD preservative booster. Diols can influence the overall microbial stability due to their water binding properties. They are widely used in skin care, hair care, wet wipes, toiletries and color cosmetics. With their moisturizing and solubilizing properties, they are considered to be multifunctional. Their neutral smell and wide pH tolerance makes them suitable for many applications.

Optimizing the delivery of non-alcohol preservatives is essential to the viability of next-generation preservative systems. The delivery system serves to maximize preservative efficacy without interfering with or destabilizing cosmetic formulations such as emulsions. All of the preservative products offered within the Optiphen P platform address today's demands for cost-efficient preservatives that follow natural ingredient trends. Optiphen DLP up to 6. Phenoxyethanol and Caprylyl Glycol. An additional booster increases the broad spectrum activity against micro-organisms. It can be used in a variety of cosmetic formulations.

The excellent pH compatibility allows use in acidic and slightly alkaline formulations. It is applicable for use in a variety of rinse off personal care preparations such as shampoos and conditioners. It is also well suited for high-quality care-cosmetics like creams, emulsions, wet wipe systems and gels. It is also well suited for high-quality care-cosmetics like creams, emulsions, lotions, and gels.

The natural movement continues to drive consumer buying habits, so it's no surprise that marketers also harbor a preference for all things green. That's why Ashland's nature-identical preservatives are ideal solutions for products aimed at the Eco-aware consumer. These preservatives support a variety of natural personal care products.

Optiphen BD is not sold in NA. Sodium Benzoate and Potassium Sorbate. Effective against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, yeast and mold, it offers excellent heat stability, works across a wide pH window and is easily solubilized in water. Propylene Carbonate and Dehydroacetic Acid. When used at higher dosages full protection can be achieved. It provides comprehensive antimicrobial protection in aqueous and emulsion-type personal care formulations and incorporates an optimized delivery system to maximize the actives efficacy usually without interfering or destabilizing cosmetic formulations, such as emulsions.

These methylisothiazolinone-based preservatives can be used in products that are typically considered difficult to preserve with conventional preservatives. Effective against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, yeast and mold, they offer excellent heat stability, work across a wide pH window and are easily solubilized in water. Balanced and synergistic, it provides broad-spectrum protection and is compatible with many other cosmetic ingredients.

Approved for use in most countries, Optiphen MIT Ultra and other classic preservatives, are effective at low doeses and can be used to bolster other preservatives. Aqua Water and Methylisothiazolinone. Phenoxyethanol and Benzoic Acid and Dehydroacetic Acid. Phenoxyethanol and Caprylyl Glycol and Sorbic Acid. Positioned for anti-aging facial products, it helps promote long-term skin benefits and natural protection from environmental aggression. PVP K-series. Polyvinylpyrrolidone is a hygroscopic, amorphous polymer supplied as a white, free-flowing powder or a clear aqueous solution.

Available in several molecular weight grades, they are characterized by K-value, and used in a great variety of applications. Polyvinylpyrrolidone can be plasticized with water and most common organic plasticizers. High polarity and the resultant propensity to form complexes with hydrogen donors, such as phenols and carboxylic acids, as well as anionic dyes and inorganic salts.

Dispersancy, where components in a mixture are uniformly distributed through the use of polyvinylpyrrolidone. Hydrophilicity, where the substantial water solubility of polyvinylpyrrolidone is its dominant feature and frequently a factor along with other properties valuable to numerous applications. Adhesion, taking advantage of the higher molecular weight polyvinylpyrrolidones formulating in aqueous media, then evaporating sufficient water to generate a solid product for the desired application.

Cohesivity, where cohesive strength is achieved through a variety of dry blending and granulation techniques. Polyvinylpyrrolidone is cross-linkable to a water insoluble, swellable material either in the course of vinylpyrrolidone polymerization, by addition of an appropriate multifunctional comonomer or by post-reaction, typically through hydrogen abstraction chemistry. Hair Care Inks and Printing. Polymers in the four ranges of vinylpyrrolidone content 30, 50, 60 and 70 percent , are produced in ethanol or isopropanol. Water and Propanediol and Pentapeptide Trifluoroacetate.

This biofunctional, an anti-wrinkle pear seed extract, shows consumer perceivable wrinkle reduction and significant improvement in skin surface appearance. Our technical team will be happy to discuss further whether Perluxan extract or one of our other products is the best product for you. In the second part of the study, human subjects submitted blood samples for analysis.

A study published in Phytochemistry measured the fecal calprotectin content of subjects who had consumed a modified hops extract. This biomarker was used as a surrogate for evaluation of gastrointestinal inflammation. Supplied as white powders, the complexes release hydrogen peroxide on contact with water or saliva in the mouth to deliver hydrogen peroxide, resulting in brighter and whiter teeth. These unique complexes are stable in a wide range of solvents and provide excellent substantivity, bioadhesion, film-forming and formulation thickening.

Features and Benefits: releases hydrogen peroxide for oxidative whitening are supplied as very stable powders act as excellent film formers, tablet binders or disintegrants provide a range of solubilities, substantivity and viscosities Applications: teeth whiteners Grades: grades base polymer K PVP K PVP XL crosslinked PVP.

It is a water-miscible polar aprotic solvent with high interfacial activity. It is used as a drug solubilizer and penetration enhancer in human and animal parenteral dosage forms. Preservative system: sodim benzoate Recommended use level: 0. Baobab seed extract rich in plant small RNAs and associated with improved epigenetic homeostasis in aging skin. Water and Glycerin and Hydrolyzed Soybean Extract. The polymer can be effectively used to bind and remove stains through hydrogen bonding with chemical compounds.

It is commonly used to enhance the solubility of active pharmaceutical ingredients and increase bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs through the formation of melt-extruded or spray-dried solid dispersions. Soluble in water and in many organic solvents, Plasdone S polymer is substantive, and acts as a film-former. It is also used as a tablet binder for denture cleaning tablets. Ashland offers a comprehensive range of Plasdone povidones PVP. Plasdone povidones are a family of water-soluble polymers based on N-vinylpyrrolidone that combine a unique set of properties for application in a wide variety of dosage forms.

Plasdone povidones are commonly used as binders for the development of tablet formulations, whether manufactured by wet granulation, dry granulation or direct compression. Plasdone K polymers are used in solid-dispersion formulations to enhance the solubility of active pharmaceutical ingredients and increase bioavailability. Ashland has a full line of solvent and water-based bonding adhesives for single-ply roofing membranes and industrial grade contact adhesives. VOC-compliant versions of many adhesives are available. The systems distinguish themselves with excellent specific adhesion to thermoset and thermoplastic materials as well as to coated metals.

Amongst the advantages in plastic bonding and repair applications they offer a well-balanced profile of easy application, gap filling and optimized trimming sanding properties.

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Greatly enhanced impact toughness sets it apart from other commercial two-component plastic bonding and repair systems. It is optimized for single use on its own or in conjunction with other stabilizers, to offer a highly effective means of preventing non-biological haze in all types of beer. Non-biological haze formation results primarily from hydrogen bonding between haze-producing proteins and the polyphenol constituents of beer. To achieve colloidal stability, it is necessary to reduce these protein-pholyphenol complexes or prevent them from forming.

Polyclar 10 beer stabilizer complexes with specific polyphenols in beer via hydrogen bonding and is then removed during filtration. The bonding occurs between the carbonyl groups of Polyclar 10 beer stabilizer and the hydroxyl groups of polyphenols. It is an optimized composite of purified food-grade carrageenan and specially modified polyvinyl polypyrrolidone PVPP making it the ideal upstream, single-addition product for stabilization protection against chill haze and permanent haze.

Non-biological haze formation results primarily from the hydrogen bonding between haze-producing proteins and the polyphenol constituents of beer. Non-microbiological products NMPs act as templates on which these protein-polyphenol complexes may attach, thereby accelerating haze development in beer. Kappa-carrageenan, a hydrocolloid extracted from red seaweed, is very effective at reducing the size of NMPs in wort. These comprise protein, polyphenol, polysaccharide and other materials.

Polyvinyl polypyrrolidone, or crosslinked PVP, is a synthetic polymer that specifically binds to haze-producing polyphenols. It complexes with specific polyphenols in beer via hydrogen bonding and is then removed during filtration. To achieve colloidal stability in beer, it is necessary to reduce these protein-polyphenol complexes, or prevent them from forming. Polyclar Brewbrite beer stabilizer does both as it reduces the size of NMPs in the wort and removes polyphenols.

This product is designed to be used in breweries with regenerative filter systems. It is optimized for regeneration use, either on its own or in conjunction with other stabilizers, offering a highly effective means of preventing non-biological haze in all types of beer. If offers the following key benefits: regeneration-grade PVPP, requiring a dedicated secondary regeneration filter effective and highly selective removal of haze-producing polyphenols protection against chill haze and permanent haze development prevents oxidation of flavonoids, which contributes to harsh, astringent and stale flavors in beer.

It provides all the benefits of Polyclar 10 single-use beer stabilizer in a low-dust version. The granules are considerably larger than Polyclar 10 single-use beer stabilizer, very low-dusting and produce a cleaner slurry for addition to beverage tanks. Extremely easy to handle and disperse, Polyclar Granules single-use, low-dust beer stabilizer requires just a few minutes of contact time for selective hydrogen bonding to remove undesirable tannoids.

This fast-wetting characteristic is due to its large surface area, which helps to accelerate the slurrying process and create efficient dispersion and hydration. It benefits from the synergism between these two components by extending beer shelf life and filtration. A dual-action stabilizer, it offers highly effective reduction of both haze-forming polyphenols and haze-forming proteins. The use of silica xerogel is the most common method of reducing haze-forming proteins. The gel adsorbs the proline-rich, haze-forming protein onto its surface.

The inclusion of PVPP in the admixture of Polyclar Plus single-use, balanced beer stabilizer provides efficient and highly selective removal of haze-producing polyphenols, thus preventing the formation of insoluble protein-polyphenol complexes responsible for chill and permanent haze. Polyclar Super R regeneration-grade beer stabilizer has low swelling characteristics in aqueous conditions and high adsorption capacity for haze-forming polyphenols making them ideal for high-volume-throughput filter runs.

In addition, Polyclar Super R regeneration-grade beer stabilizer achieves high efficacy of polyphenol removal through optimized morphology and particle size and its ability to withstand repeated regeneration cycles high mechanical strength. Brewers can achieve a high degree of stability and clarity from optimized dosage of PVPP, and yet, at the same time, it can be regenerated and used for repeated cycles. Polyclar Super R regeneration-grade beer stabilizer provides a robust solution for use with most PVPP-regeneration filter systems to preserve the quality and character of beer after packaging.

Polyclar single-use stabilizers are used preventively or remedially to specifically adsorb polyphenolic materials and their monomeric precursors. Crospovidone provides rapid disintegration and dissolution to oral solid dosage forms. Polyplasdone crospovidone particles are granular and porous compared with other superdisintegrants. The high surface area combined with unique chemistry results in high interfacial activity that enhances the dissolution of poorly soluble drugs in a way that is not possible with other disintegrant technologies. A crosslinked PVP, this, nonionic, water-insoluble but swellable homopolymer is available in several grades XL, XL differentiated by particle size.

Complying with USP, European and Japanese pharmacopeia specifications for Crospovidone, Polyplasdone polymer act as tablet disintegrants. It may reduce the breakdown of sucrose from food through l-arabinose action on the sucrase enzyme and may support control of insulin in healthy people through the addition of chromium. L-arabinose is a monosaccharide found in nonstarch carbohydrate plants like corn.

In vitro and animal studies have indicated that the compound may inhibit sucrase action and consequent digestion of sucrose. A dose-response study showed a reduced serum glucose level and serum insulin response to sucrose consumption, indicating that the addition of l-arabinose blocked absorption of the sugar.

FDA concludes, however, that the existence of such a relationship between chromium picolinate and either insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes is highly uncertain. The cetearyl and behenyl alcohols function as an emulsion stabilizer, binder, viscosity-increasing agent and opacifying agent. The hydroxyethyl cetearamidopropyldimonium chloride is the quaternary compound providing antistatic properties and super-conditioning benefits.

ProLipid lamellar gel has superior conditioning benefits in both leave-on and rinse-off products. It is suitable for treatment applications targeting damaged and chemically treated hair. In rinse-out applications, it delivers a soft feel and allows for effortless wet and dry combing. In addition, they enhance the performance of cosmetic formulations and can be used to develop stable lamellar gel networks with a wide range of rheologies and sensory attributes depending on the type of auxiliary ingredients present. This patent-pending technology may help hair defense, as demonstrated by in vitro and ex vivo studies, by helping maintain the level of antioxidant protein expression in the hair follicles.

In addition, it may assist the scalp to limit hair cell death in stress conditions and may aid in the preservation of hair color. It therefore results in the appearance of healthy, fuller, younger-looking hair. Preservative system: sodium benzoate. Water and Butylene Glycol and Dimer Tripeptide Oryza sativa is listed on the Chinese list of recognized ingredients in Ministry of Health.

Water and Glycerin and Hydrolyzed Rice Protein.

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Preservative system: sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate. Some of our patented formulations have been specifically designed for low migration and metalized film applications. PureSeal water-based cold seals are natural rubber latex, synthetic or hybrid blends. PureSeal heat-activated adhesives are synthetic emulsions based on styrene acrylic polyurethane and vinyl acetate emulsions, formulated to balance hot tack, seal strength and block resistance.

PureSeal cold seals and heat-activated adhesives can be formulated to perform on various substrates and at specific adhesion values, FDA regulations, sterilization methods and other compounded organoleptic requirements. They can be used in gravure, flexographic, roll, rod and pattern coating applications. Whatever your needs, Ashland has a product for you. We can customize our products to meet your specific requirements. This adhesive was specifically designed as a fast cure system with final bonds obtained within 48 hours under ambient conditions without the need of a hot room post-cure.

Composed of two components, it is used in food and industrial flexible packaging applications that require an aliphatic polyurethane chemistry to prevent the formation of aromatic amine extractables or require high resistance to UV weatherability. Purelam has been formulated to exhibit exceptional performance when applied to metalized films or aluminum foil. Purelam is FDA compliant and is typically used in flexible packaging markets for products such as snacks, meats, confectionery and cheeses.

From overprint varnishes to adhesives, we offer a wide range of products to fit the most demanding applications including high scuff resistance, low migration and chemical resistance. They are specifically formulated to provide excellent coefficient of friction COF stability, without the need to add an external slip additive package. Purethane adhesives have very low odor retention. They can be used either as a one-component or two-component systems for applications where moderate to high levels of moisture, temperature, and chemical resistance are required.

Water and Butylene Glycol and Dipeptide It helps protect skin from environmental stresses and prevents loss of skin resiliency. Preservation system: preservative-free Recommended use level: 0. Blood Safety. Rad-Sure is available in two types: Gamma and X-Ray. Gamma is compatible with Cesium or Cobalt radiation sources and X-Ray is compatible with x-ray irradiators that utilize x-rays generated from kVp sources that are filtered through 0. When attached to blood products, Rad-Sure blood irradiation indicators show whether the blood products have been irradiated. Product Features: indicators can now be stored at room temperature!

FDA listed medical device. For more information about Rad-Sure or how to order, contact us. The unique design features three windows that, once exposed, can transfer from the illumination container to the final storage containers, following the path of the product. They should not be used as dosimeters to measure the dose delivered by the illuminator.

These products are easy to use, shear-tolerant, shear-thinning and effective at low use levels. The performance characteristics and benefits of the polymers allow formulators to develop a range of efficacious and appealing personal care products. A unique blend of phytosterols and phytostanols derived from coniferous trees, which is proven to block the absorption of cholesterol from the gastro-intestinal tract.

Phytosterols and phytostanols compete with cholesterol for absorption in the small intestine. This, in turn, reduces dietary cholesterol absorption. Overuse of sterols, however, leads to high levels of sterols in the blood, which have been associated with atherosclerosis. Phytostanols, like phytosterols, reduce cholesterol absorption but do not increase blood sterol content.

This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. Phenoxyethanol and Iodopropynyl Butylcarbamate. This tried and true preservative delivers efficient antimicrobial power to a wide variety of personal care products. Balanced, synergistic and boasting broad-spectrum protection, Rokonsal J preservative is compatible with many other cosmetic ingredients.

Approved for use in most countries, and available for sale in EMEA, this preservative is effective at low doses and can also be used to bolster other preservatives. This tried and true classic preservative delivers efficient antimicrobial power to a wide variety of personal care products. Balance, synergistic and boasting broad-spectrum protection, Rokonsal KS-4 preservative, approve for use in most countries and is available for sale in EMEA, is effective at low doses and can be used to bolster other preservatives.

This tried and true classic delivers efficient antimicrobial power to a wide variety of personal care products. Balanced, synergistic and boasting broad-spectrum protection, Rokonsal LJ-1 is compatible with many other cosmetic ingredients. It's sold in EMEA and approved for use in most countries, Rokonsal LJ-1 preservative, like other classic preservatives, is effective at low doses and can also be used to bolster other preservatives. Approved for use in most countries, Ashland's family of classic preservatives are effective at low doses and can be used to bolster other preservatives.

The Giant Kelp is sustainably sourced and eco-harvested from the wild off the coast of California. The process is solvent-free, consumes minimal energy and creates virtually no waste. Regeneration, nutrition and barrier functions are the three properties of the Giant Kelp seaweed. The condurango name comes from condur-angu, a condor vine used by the large condor eagles as anti-venom against snake bites. Condurango is a bitter herb known worldwide for its detoxifying properties. It is commonly used in nutraceuticals and homeopathy.

The bark is rich in cinnamate derivatives, which are known for their anti-inflammatory properties. Stress is universally ranked as a key negative influence on wellbeing. Many relate their stressful lives with negative changes to their skin appearance. Additionally, increased exposure to pollution has resulted in health-conscious consumers looking for anti-stress solutions. Specialty and Industrial Coatings Intermediates and Solvents. In addition to their excellent solvency, our engineered solvents are formulated for low VOC and low toxicity.

They are effective replacements for methylene chloride, acetone, MEK and halogenated solvents. These products produce a well defined amount of homogeneously distributed microscopic air bubbles in building mortars. This reduces the density of the wet mortars and improves workability.

In addition, the small air void system can improve freeze-thaw durability while minimally influencing the final strength. Food Packaging Tapes and Labels.

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Sorez HS polymers forms a water-soluble film on most surfaces that reduces the ability of soil to stick enabling easier cleaning. In addition, the polymer film helps enhance the appearance of freshly cleaned surfaces. It is a two-component system compatible with typical coating processes. It delivers good lithium ion permeability and minimizes negative effects on cell electrochemistry cycling or rate study. As a leading supplier of a wide range of specialty ingredients, Ashland provides binders to the lithium ion battery LiB industry. A primary purpose of the ceramic-coated separator in lithium ion batteries is to increase temperature tolerance and to provide mechanical stability.

Heat shrinkage of the separator film can profoundly affect the lifespan and safety of lithium ion batteries. The ceramic coating on the separator provides a safety benefit to the cell by providing a heat-resistant layer. As a leading supplier of a wide range of specialty ingredients, Ashland has complemented its range of binders to include dispersants for the lithium ion battery LiB industry. Soteras MSi binder is a unique water-based binder for high-capacity silicon-based anodes in lithium ion batteries.

Combined with these silicon technologies, the Soteras MSi binder helps lithium ion battery cell producers increase capacity by up to 30 percent. Flexible and strong, Soteras MSi binder is compatible with current industry processing requirements. The Soteras MSi binder offers good electrochemical stability, enabling producers to design batteries with a wider voltage range than they can with conventional binders.

The binder also has good slurry properties, which facilitate smooth coated surfaces on the collector and help prevent battery failure.

The binder of choice for silicon-containing anodes. Soteras MSi binder has better capacity retention in all three types of silicon-based anodes. The Soteras MSi binder also outperforms the conventional binder at high charge rates. And its superior adhesion contributes to longer cycle life. The Soteras MSi binder is a two-component system, added at a powder to liquid ratio. Suggested dosage is 2. The resulting gels have good shear, temperature and UV-A radiation stability. Sterin provides positive visual verification that the insects have been irradiated to the specified minimum dosage.

Ashland has been manufacturing irradiation indicators for over 25 years that are used around the globe. When attached to containers containing insects, Sterin irradiation indicators show whether the insects have been irradiated. Product Features: Sticks to the inside of the container Easy to use: just peel, stick, irradiate, and read Reduces operator errors by providing a positive, visual verification of irradiation Enhances quality assurance Meets cGMP requirements Sterin is available for doses of 70 Gy, Gy, Gy, and Gy.

Contact us for other doses. For more information on Sterin or how to order, contact us. They should not be used as dosimeters to measure the dose delivered by the irradiator. Styleze CC polymer imparts long-lasting hold and improved stiffness, even in high humidity conditions and at low use levels. Its pseudocationic nature makes it substantive to hair, providing conditioning and bodying effects as well as delivering improved shine, better manageability and a cleaner feel.

Styleze CC polymer can also be used as a thermal protectant in hair care products. A naturally-derived polymer that delivers voluminous style for bouncy, defined waves, curls. These film-forming polymers promote and stabilize foam through their ability to reduce surface tension, have excellent adhesion to high energy substrates and form flexible, elastic, low-tack and heat-resistant films. Additional solution viscosity improvements can be achieved by the addition of salts. Long-lasting anti-frizz effect reduces the effort and time taken to style hair. Along with providing brilliant shine, the polymer also protects against heat styling damage.

The source is the Amazonian superfruit Camu-Camu, a superfruit renowned for its high Vitamin C content. Associated with a reduction in stress markers such as cortisol, Vitamin C can help combat the acceleration of the signs of aging. Results showed less visible signs of skin fatigue in 3D models mimicking skin fatigue. Due to the electron delocalized lactam ring, Surfadone LP wetting agent interacts with anionic surfactant micelles.

This greatly enhances its water solubility, resulting in a synergistic surface tension reduction and wetting enhancement at low concentrations. Home, Industrial and Institutional Inks and Printing. Surfadone wetting agent is a low foaming surfactant, wetting agent and soil dispersant. Sodium Hydroxymethylglycinate. Suttocide A preservative is a fast-acting, broad-spectrum preservative with a long history of use for efficacy. Innovative additives for a variety of applications within invert drilling muds.